1.      Sejarah Islam di Aceh
Berdasarkan Seminar Sejarah Masuk dan Berkembangnya Islam di Aceh yang berlangsung di Banda Aceh pada tahun 1978, dinyatakan bahwa kerajaan Islam pertama adalah Perlak, Lamuri, dan Pasai.
Masa kerajaan Islam merupakan salah satu dari periodesisasi perjalanan sejarah pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Hal ini karena lahirnya kerajaan Islam yang disertai berbagai kebijakan dari penguasanya saat itu sangat mewarnai sejarah Islam di Indonesia. Terlebih-lebih, agama Islam juga pernah dijadikan sebagai agama resmi negara / kerajaan pada saat itu.

2.      Kerajaan Islam di Aceh
a.       Kerajaan Samudera Pasai
Kerajaan ini berdiri pada abad ke-10 M/3 H. Raja pertamanya adalah Al-Malik Ibrahim bin Mahdum; yang kedua bernama Al-Malik al-Shaleh, dan yang terakhir kerajaan Islam pertama di Indonesia (daerah Aceh). Namun ada juga yang menyatakan bahwa kerajaan Islam pertama di Indonesia adalah kerajaan Perlak, tetapi tidak banyak ditemukan bukti-bukti kuat yang mendukung fakta sejarah ini.

The concept of Southeast Asia as a political entity emerged almost by accident from World War II when, at the Quebec Conference in August 1943, the Western Allies decided to establish a separate South East Asia Command (SEAC), embracing Burma, Malaya, Sumatra and Thailand. The Potsdam Conference in July 1945 extended SEAC's responsibility to cover the rest of the Netherlands East Indies and Indochina south of the sixteenth parallel, excluding only northern Vietnam, the Philippines and Laos.
This military expedient provided a cohesive framework for a region which had never previously been seen as a distinct geopolitical area. No single empire had dominated the whole region in pre-colonial times. At the outbreak of the Pacific war, apart from Thailand, Southeast Asia comprised a collection of colonies and protectorates under the tutelage of Western imperial powers. And even Thailand's sovereignty and freedom of international action were limited. The external relations of the region were determined as part of each metropolitan country's foreign policy, without heed to pre-colonial feuds or friendships.
Although the period of consolidated colonial rule in Southeast Asia was comparatively brief, it produced fundamental effects not only on the various subject states but on their relationships with each other and the outside world after independence. Occasionally colonial rule strengthened existing political structures and tried to take over their regional relationships, but more often Western rule had the opposite effect. The divisiveness was most notable in the separation of Sumatra and the Malay
peninsula by the Anglo-Dutch treaties of 1824 and 1871. Elsewhere it smothered bitter feuds such as the traditional enmity between Burma and Thailand, or stemmed age-old developments like the southern expansionof the Vietnamese people and the waning of Cambodia. Often it encouraged the immigration of people from outside the region, notably Chinese and Indians who found opportunities in the colonial economies.
While there were stirrings of nationalism before World War II, the similarities of the imperial experience did not provide a stimulus for co-operation, and nationalism developed at a varied pace and in different forms in the individual countries.
The closest to a regional association before World War II was the Nanyang Chinese National Salvation Movement. The Chinese term 'Nanyang' or Southern Ocean had long been in use but acquired a new significance as Nationalist China tried to bind its overseas compatriots together in the service of the motherland. The Nanyang Chinese National Salvation Movement, which reached its zenith in 1938 in opposing the Japanese invasion of China, had its headquarters in Singapore and branches throughout Southeast Asia. For a short time Japanese aggression against China drew the Nanyang Chinese together in unprecedented unity. This was not proof against the political and cultural divisions within the Chinese community, but the concept—or spectre—of the Nanyang Chinese was a potent force in shaping postwar regional policies and attitudes of newly independent states.
Other external ideological and religious influences exerted some sway at certain periods but were generally divisive. Communism in Southeast Asia was fragmented and weak after the disastrous communist revolt in Java in 1926, followed by the split between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1927 and the failure of the Comintern to establish an effective Nanyang Communist Party. The pan-Islamic movement, which played a dominant role in early Indonesian nationalism, lost credibility with the downfall of Sarekat Islam in the 1920s, while international Buddhism could not transcend ethnic and sectarian differences.
Yet despite the divisions, Western imperialism stamped a pattern across Southeast Asia. After wars of resistance by subject people and friction among the colonial powers themselves during the early days of their takeover, by the twentieth century territorial boundaries were clearly delineated and civil wars were over. Western imperialism brought peace and stability to the region, which was broken only by occasional upheavals, such as the Saya San rebellion in Burma. The various colonial regimes had many similar features: secular administration, a modernized bureaucracy and judiciary, Western-educated elites, an urban middle class, and economies partially geared to the international world system.
The colonial pattern was shattered by the Japanese invasion and interregnum. The Japanese Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere, in whichSoutheast Asia was to play a vital role, proved to be more a political firebreak than a catalyst for regional cohesion. It disrupted colonial economies and political administrations without substituting an enduring new system. Nations emerging in the postwar world had to establish their own identity and create a new regional order. The variety of ethnic, cultural and religious differences added complexity to the situation, as did the revival of some traditional issues. Once more the region came under the influence of its powerful neighbours, India and China, which were themselves  undergoing great changes. Southeast Asia was drawn into the superpower struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. And later still it was to fall under the economic influence of Japan

Sumber :
The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia Volume Two; hal. 586, _______ , Cambridge Press; New York, 1992.
A. Sekilas tentang Kerajaan Pagaruyung

Kerajaan Pagaruyung adalah sebuah Kerajaan Melayu yang pernah berdiri, meliputi provinsi Sumatera Barat sekarang dan daerah-daerah di sekitarnya. Nama kerajaan ini dirujuk dari Tambo yang ada pada masyarakat Minangkabau, yaitu nama sebuah nagari yang bernama Pagaruyung dan juga dapat dirujuk dari inskripsi cap mohor Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar dari Pagaruyung yaitu pada tulisan beraksara Jawi dalam lingkaran bagian dalam yang berbunyi sebagai berikut: Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar ibnu Sultan Khalīfatullāh yang mempunyai tahta kerajaan dalam negeri Pagaruyung Dārul Qarār Johan Berdaulat Zillullāh fīl 'Ālam. Kerajaan ini runtuh pada masa Perang Padri, setelah ditandatanganinya perjanjian antara Kaum Adat dengan pihak Belanda yang menjadikan kawasan Kerajaan Pagaruyung berada dalam pengawasan Belanda.
Sebelumnya kerajaan ini tergabung dalam Malayapura, sebuah kerajaan yang pada Prasasti Amoghapasa disebutkan dipimpin oleh Adityawarman, yang mengukuhkan dirinya sebagai penguasa Bhumi Malayu di Suwarnabhumi. Termasuk pula di dalam Malayapura adalah kerajaan Dharmasraya dan beberapa kerajaan atau daerah taklukan Adityawarman lainnya.

B. Penamaan Sumatera Barat
Siapa sih yang nggak kenal dengan Sumatera Barat pada zaman ini? tapi beberapa abad yang lalu tidak ada yang mengenal apa itu Sumbar, Mereka hanya mengenal Pagaruyuang atau Minangkabau.
Saya terfikir untuk menulis dibagian ini kenapa sih harus namanya harus Sumbar? ternyata nama Sumbar itu mulai dipakai penduduk yang mendiami wilayah tersebut mulai pada zaman pendudukan penjajahan belanda dengan nama Pantai Barat Sumatera. dengan Ibukota pemukiman Kota Padang.

C. Pandangan Orang Batak, Terhadap Kerajaan Pagaruyuang.
kembali ke Topik pembahasan, batak adalah suatu suku atau kaum yang mendiami Sumatera Utara sekarang. Meskipun daerah yang didiami oleh Orang Batak pada zaman Kerajaan Pagaruyuang bukan merupakan wilayah dari kekuasaannya tapi Orang Batak, yang hidup terpencil sekalipun, mereka sangat Hormat terhadap raja pagaruyuang, Seperti yang tertulis dalam buku Anthonby Reid.
"orang batajk meski berjiwa bebas, tetapi memiliki rasa hormat yang tinggi dan kepatuhan yang membabi buta kepada raja-raja minangkabau, sanak keluarga dan para utusannya, mereka percaya hidup mereka tidak akan selamat, padi mereka akan terserang hama, kerbau mereka akan mati, dan mereka akan selalu termakan kutukan, jika perasaan utusan-utusan suci tersinggung"
apa maksud dari Utusan Sucit tersebut
maksudnya adalah raja minangkabau diyakini oleh sebahagian besar penduduk sebagai salah satu utusan atau keturunan dari tiga ahli waris dunia, yaitu keturunan dari Iskandar Zulkarnaen

sumber :
Anthony Reid ; Sumatera as Frontier